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In this article, you'll learn how to install .NET on macOS. .NET is made up of the runtime and the SDK. The runtime is used to run a .NET app and may or may not be included with the app. The SDK is used to create .NET apps and libraries. The .NET runtime is always installed with the SDK.
The latest version of .NET is 5.0.
The following table is a list of currently supported .NET releases and the versions of macOS they're supported on. These versions remain supported either the version of .NET reaches end-of-support.
|Operating System||.NET Core 2.1||.NET Core 3.1||.NET 5.0|
|macOS 11.0 'Big Sur'||✔️ 2.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 3.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 5.0 (Release notes)|
|macOS 10.15 'Catalina'||✔️ 2.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 3.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 5.0 (Release notes)|
|macOS 10.14 'Mojave'||✔️ 2.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 3.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 5.0 (Release notes)|
|macOS 10.13 'High Sierra'||✔️ 2.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 3.1 (Release notes)||✔️ 5.0 (Release notes)|
|macOS 10.12 'Sierra'||✔️ 2.1 (Release notes)||❌ 3.1 (Release notes)||❌ 5.0 (Release notes)|
The following versions of .NET are ❌ no longer supported. The downloads for these still remain published:
The runtime is used to run apps created with .NET. When an app author publishes an app, they can include the runtime with their app. If they don't include the runtime, it's up to the user to install the runtime.
There are three different runtimes you can install on macOS:
ASP.NET Core runtime
Runs ASP.NET Core apps. Includes the .NET runtime.
This runtime is the simplest runtime and doesn't include any other runtime. It's highly recommended that you install ASP.NET Core runtime for the best compatibility with .NET apps.
The SDK is used to build and publish .NET apps and libraries. Installing the SDK includes both runtimes: ASP.NET Core and .NET.
.NET is supported on the following macOS releases:
|.NET Core Version||macOS||Architectures||More information|
|5.0||High Sierra (10.13+)||x64||More information|
|3.1||High Sierra (10.13+)||x64||More information|
|3.0||High Sierra (10.13+)||x64||More information|
|2.2||Sierra (10.12+)||x64||More information|
|2.1||Sierra (10.12+)||x64||More information|
Beginning with macOS Catalina (version 10.15), all software built after June 1, 2019 that is distributed with Developer ID, must be notarized. This requirement applies to the .NET runtime, .NET SDK, and software created with .NET.
The runtime and SDK installers for .NET 5.0 and .NET Core 3.1, 3.0, and 2.1, have been notarized since February 18, 2020. Prior released versions aren't notarized. If you run a non-notarized app, you'll see an error similar to the following image:
For more information about how enforced-notarization affects .NET (and your .NET apps), see Working with macOS Catalina Notarization.
.NET applications that use the System.Drawing.Common assembly require libgdiplus to be installed.
An easy way to obtain libgdiplus is by using the Homebrew ('brew') package manager for macOS. After installing brew, install libgdiplus by executing the following commands at a Terminal (command) prompt:
macOS has standalone installers that can be used to install the .NET 5.0 SDK:
As an alternative to the macOS installers for .NET, you can download and manually install the SDK and runtime. Manual install is usually performed as part of continuous integration testing. For a developer or user, it's generally better to use an installer.
If you install .NET SDK, you don't need to install the corresponding runtime. First, download a binary release for either the SDK or the runtime from one of the following sites:
Next, extract the downloaded file and use the
export command to set variables used by .NET and then ensure .NET is in PATH.
To extract the runtime and make the .NET CLI commands available at the terminal, first download a .NET binary release. Then, open a terminal and run the following commands from the directory where the file was saved. The archive file name may be different depending on what you downloaded.
Use the following command to extract the runtime:
Use the following command to extract the SDK:
export commands only make the .NET CLI commands available for the terminal session in which it was run.
You can edit your shell profile to permanently add the commands. There are a number of different shells available for Linux and each has a different profile. For example:
Edit the appropriate source file for your shell and add
:$HOME/dotnet to the end of the existing
PATH statement. If no
PATH statement is included, add a new line with
export DOTNET_ROOT=$HOME/dotnet to the end of the file.
This approach lets you install different versions into separate locations and choose explicitly which one to use by which application.
Visual Studio for Mac installs the .NET SDK when the .NET workload is selected. To get started with .NET development on macOS, see Install Visual Studio 2019 for Mac.
|.NET SDK version||Visual Studio version|
|5.0||Visual Studio 2019 for Mac version 8.8 or higher.|
|3.1||Visual Studio 2019 for Mac version 8.4 or higher.|
|2.1||Visual Studio 2019 for Mac version 8.0 or higher.|
Visual Studio Code is a powerful and lightweight source code editor that runs on your desktop. Visual Studio Code is available for Windows, macOS, and Linux.
While Visual Studio Code doesn't come with an automated .NET installer like Visual Studio does, adding .NET support is simple.
The dotnet-install scripts are used for automation and non-admin installs of the runtime. You can download the script from the dotnet-install script reference page.
The script defaults to installing the latest long term support (LTS) version, which is .NET Core 3.1. You can choose a specific release by specifying the
current switch. Include the
runtime switch to install a runtime. Otherwise, the script installs the SDK.
The previous command installs the ASP.NET Core runtime for maximum compatability. The ASP.NET Core runtime also includes the standard .NET runtime.
Containers provide a lightweight way to isolate your application from the rest of the host system. Containers on the same machine share just the kernel and use resources given to your application.
.NET can run in a Docker container. Official .NET Docker images are published to the Microsoft Container Registry (MCR) and are discoverable at the Microsoft .NET Core Docker Hub repository. Each repository contains images for different combinations of the .NET (SDK or Runtime) and OS that you can use.
Microsoft provides images that are tailored for specific scenarios. For example, the ASP.NET Core repository provides images that are built for running ASP.NET Core apps in production.
For more information about using .NET Core in a Docker container, see Introduction to .NET and Docker and Samples.
This tutorial shows how to create and run a .NET console application using Visual Studio for Mac.
Your feedback is highly valued. There are two ways you can provide feedback to the development team on Visual Studio for Mac:
Visual Studio for Mac version 8.8 or later. Select the option to install .NET Core. Installing Xamarin is optional for .NET development. For more information, see the following resources:
Start Visual Studio for Mac.
Select New in the start window.
In the New Project dialog, select App under the Web and Console node. Select the Console Application template, and select Next.
In the Target Framework drop-down of the Configure your new Console Application dialog, select .NET 5.0, and select Next.
Type 'HelloWorld' for the Project Name, and select Create.
The template creates a simple 'Hello World' application. It calls the Console.WriteLine(String) method to display 'Hello World!' in the terminal window.
The template code defines a class,
Program, with a single method,
Main, that takes a String array as an argument:
Main is the application entry point, the method that's called automatically by the runtime when it launches the application. Any command-line arguments supplied when the application is launched are available in the
Press ⌥⌘↵ (option+command+enter) to run the app without debugging.
Close the Terminal window.
Enhance the application to prompt the user for their name and display it along with the date and time.
In Program.cs, replace the contents of the
Main method, which is the line that calls
Console.WriteLine, with the following code:
This code displays a prompt in the console window and waits until the user enters a string followed by the enter key. It stores this string in a variable named
name. It also retrieves the value of the DateTime.Now property, which contains the current local time, and assigns it to a variable named
date. And it displays these values in the console window. Finally, it displays a prompt in the console window and calls the Console.ReadKey(Boolean) method to wait for user input.
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n represents a newline character.
The dollar sign (
$) in front of a string lets you put expressions such as variable names in curly braces in the string. The expression value is inserted into the string in place of the expression. This syntax is referred to as interpolated strings.
Press ⌥⌘↵ (option+command+enter) to run the app.
Respond to the prompt by entering a name and pressing enter.
Close the terminal.
In this tutorial, you created a .NET console application. In the next tutorial, you debug the app.