The ESP8266 is a low-cost and readily available Wi-Fi module with full TCP/IP stack and microcontroller capability.It can be used with any Pixhawk series controller.
ESP8266 is the defacto default WiFi module for use with Pixracer (and is usually bundled with it).
The module is readily available.A few vendors are listed below.
The iMac G4 The iMac G4 has one feature that makes it extremely difficult to mod, the neck. As this is the feature that gives it its defining characteristic, it can not be eliminated or bypassed. The neck is difficult to open and barely has enough room for the remarkably thin wires that Apple has already passed through it. The Apple iMac G4/800 (Flat Panel) features an 800 MHz PowerPC 7445 (G4) processor with the AltiVec 'Velocity Engine' vector processing unit and a 256k on-chip level 2 cache, 256 MB of RAM (PC133 SDRAM), a 60.0 GB Ultra ATA/66 hard drive (5400 RPM), a tray-loading 'SuperDrive', and NVIDIA GeForce2 MX graphics with 32 MB of DDR SDRAM (AGP 2X support). ESP8266 WiFi Module. The ESP8266 is a low-cost and readily available Wi-Fi module with full TCP/IP stack and microcontroller capability. It can be used with any Pixhawk series controller. ESP8266 is the defacto default WiFi module for use with Pixracer (and is usually bundled with it). The module is readily available. Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless systems. Features of 4G Wireless Systems The following are some possible features of the 4G systems: 1. Support interactive multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other broadband services. High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit.
The ESP8266 firmware has these factory settings:
The firmware repository contains instructions and all the tools needed for building and flashing the firmware.
If you have firmware 1.0.4 or greater installed, you can do the update using the ESP's Over The Air Update feature.Just connect to its AP WiFi link and browse to:
http://192.168.4.1/update. You can then select the firmware file you downloaded above and upload it to the WiFi Module.
Before flashing, make sure you boot the ESP8266 in Flash Mode as described below.If you cloned the MavESP8266 repository, you can build and flash the firmware using the provided PlatformIO tools and environment. If you downloaded the pre-built firmware above, download the esptool utility and use the command line below:
ESP8266 must be powered with 3.3 volts only.
There are various methods for setting the ESP8266 into Flash Mode but not all USB/UART adapters provide all the necessary pins for automatic mode switching. In order to boot the ESP8266 in Flash Mode, the GPIO-0 pin must be set low (GND) and the CH_PD pin must be set high (VCC). This is what my own setup looks like:
I built a cable where RX, TX, VCC, and GND are properly wired directly from the FTDI adapter to the ESP8266. From the ESP8266, I left two wires connected to GPIO-0 and CH_PD free so I can boot it either normally or in flash mode by connecting them to GND and VCC respectively.
If using PX4 1.8.2 (and earlier) you should connect the ESP8266 to TELEM2 and configure the port by setting the parameter
SYS_COMPANION to 1921600 (remember to reboot after setting the parameter). The following instructions assume you are using PX4 versions after 1.8.2
Connect your ESP8266 to your Pixhawk-series flight controller (e.g. Pixracer) on any free UART.
Connect the flight controller to your ground station via USB (as WiFi is not yet fully set up).
Once the firmware (port) is set up you can remove the physical USB connection between the ground station and the vehicle.
On your wifi-enabled QGroundControl ground station computer/tablet, find and connect to the open wireless network for your ESP8266.
On Windows, the connection settings will look like this:
QGC automatically starts its UDP link on boot.Once your computer/tablet is connected to the PixRacer WiFi Access Point, it will automatically make the connection.
You should now see HUD movement on your QGC computer via wireless link and be able to view the summary panel for the ESP8266 WiFi Bridge (as shown below).
If you have any problem connecting, see QGC Installation/Configuration Problems.
Today in Tedium: Last week, I sent a piece extolling the joys of the Hackintosh, a concept that is very much a response to the demise of “the good old days” of Apple. But as I was working out the details on that piece, I had a not-so-secret hobby that was taking up quite a bit of my time. I was trying to figure out if I could revive a Genuine Apple Product™ that had seen better days. My acquisition of this product was a total impulse buy: After reading up on the Mac Mini G4 and remembering that it was the first computer I ever owned that I had not purchased refurbished or used (though not my first Mac), I decided to relive those days by buying a new one. I gave myself some parameters, however: It had to be as cheap as possible, and if it was broken, I had to fix it. After some research and some careful bidding on eBay, I bought a damaged one—for $10, plus shipping. And I got it to work. And now, I’m telling you all about my experience in today’s Tedium. — Ernie @ Tedium
Today’s GIF is the video of the Mac OS X intro, as was used in version 10.5, Leopard. Full disclosure: Where possible, tonight’s episode was produced using the machine I bought on eBay. Yes, including the GIF.
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The amount I paid, all in, for my project, which included shipping costs and some more parts, including a power adapter that is proprietary to the Mac Mini prior to its 2010 redesign. I’ll go into the parts in a second, but I should make it clear that, for the average person, this is completely impractical. You can do nearly everything that an old school Mac Mini is good for by using an inexpensive Chromebook. Even a Raspberry Pi is likely more functional in many ways than a Mac Mini, thanks in no small part to the fact that its software and hardware is supported, unlike in the case of a beat-up Mac Mini. If you do something like this, it’s because you like the Mac and want to appreciate the company at its iPod-selling heights.
The Mac Mini, as it appeared at my doorstep.
Let me preface this by saying: I got really lucky with this purchase.
Things could have been a lot worse. There were no guarantees the thing would even power on, let alone work well enough that I could actually work for longer than five minutes.
But it took a little bit to get going, either way. The reason was the hard drive, which had been somehow damaged in a way that rendered the old disk useless. After I got the power cable ($14, shipped) and plugged the thing in, I heard some very loud clicking noises that made me worry for the state of the drive itself. Even after booting into the installer on my USB drive (more on that below) I still had to figure out how to get the operating system on a drive.
As a stopgap solution, I wanted to install Mac OS X on an external hard drive—but that’s not something that was supported at the time with USB. So, I was stuck with Plan B. And Plan B was kind an interesting byproduct of the current state of storage.
If I was using a machine that was based on DOS or Amiga, perhaps I would have gone with something based on CompactFlash, which is directly based on the same IDE and ATA standards of many hard drives. But Mac OS X is an operating system that requires a whole lot of virtual memory, which requires something that can handle a lot of files moving around at all times, like a hard drive—or what I ultimately chose, a solid state drive.
The SSD; the IDE adapter that holds it into place, its enclosure, and the hard drive it replaced.
One problem: The solid state drive didn’t become popular until the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) drive, which this machine currently uses, was on its way out. And while IDE-based SSDs exist, they’re expensive. So my solution was to buy an adapter that converted an M.2 SSD into an IDE drive. Five years ago, this might have been cost-prohibitive. But with the prices of SSD drives finally bottoming out in the last year, however, it was simply the best, least expensive option. Between the adapter and the SSD, I paid a grand total of $40 for a drive that was both larger and faster than the one I was taking out. (But neither are a speed demon, and that’s due to the pokey system bus.)
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Other factors made the device a little bit cheaper. As I was opening this thing up using a putty knife (really, that’s what you needed to use on these machines back in the day), I noticed that some kind soul upgraded the RAM to its maximum 1 gigabyte—twice the amount that was listed on eBay, and something that saved me from having to do an upgrade myself. And because nothing else was broken other than the hard drive—everything, from the speaker to the combo drive up front, worked like a charm—I was ultimately able to salvage this “for parts” machine by purchasing a single part, an adapter for the part, an adapter for a monitor, and a power cord. Not bad for a risky buy.
Finding old Mac software was a mixture of easy and difficult. Sites like Macintosh Repository helped me fill out the parts of my install that were important and even essential. But even software that was designed for this thing would not work because of the requirement of having an online connection. As a result, recreating the experience of running a Mac in 2005, however, would be impossible—due to no fault of the machine itself.
Even Apple’s home page doesn’t load correctly on the PowerPC variant of Safari.
Yeah, you’re not getting technical support on this machine.
This is the complicated part. I think that when this device was first sold in early 2005, it was a great machine in terms of what it could do, and if you were to look at it from a pure interface perspective, you would find it not much unlike what you would get from a modern-day Mac interface. No dark mode, but nothing preventing you from getting work done.
Switching between windows is about as fast as you would expect from a modern Mac, even if the startup process is a little slower and there are some signs of stress.
But the real problem is that, even if this was a reasonably good machine for 2005, an era when switchers were rampant, web technology has totally left it behind, making using it for its original purpose an exercise in frustration. It’s hard to get used to, but I think, after a bit of tweaking on my end, I finally found a comfort zone with surfing the web on this machine. I largely avoided YouTube and ignored most social media minus Twitter, which seemed to work OK. Nonetheless, this was one of the hardest parts about working on this machine.
I had to spend a lot of time looking at web browsers to figure out something I could live with. TenFourFox, a PowerPC port of Firefox, based on its older Gecko engine, certainly does the job, but it’s probably a better fit for something like a G5, which comes with more horsepower and can support a higher amount of ram than the modest little box on my desk. Its existence is heartening, though. (Side note for long-time readers: You might remember its developer, Cameron Kaiser, from a 2017 edition of Tedium; he’s also known for helping maintain the modern Gophersphere.)
The best bet in my personal case was something called Leopard-Webkit, which effectively is a version of Safari brought up to relatively recent web standards. It is not perfect, and I’ve never really been a fan of Safari in the first place, but it is clearly functional. It is somewhat slow—and breaks on modern webapps like Facebook, YouTube, and Gmail—but it is faster than the alternative and works just fine for Google searching.
So using this thing like a Chromebook is totally out of the question. On the plus side, creature comforts that come with using a modern-day Mac are well-represented. It’s strange to think about now, but many popular apps that are widely used in the modern day—most famously Dropbox and Evernote, but also popular utilities such as Alfred and 1Password—were a part of the Mac ecosystem from their beginnings. And tools that I use on a daily basis, such as the word-manipulation utility TextSoap, have robust PowerPC versions that work not unlike their modern peers. It’s bizarre to think about, but the Mac ecosystem has influenced a lot about the way we use computers, in part because of all these software tools that can be used to this day on a G4 Mac Mini.
Me Photoshopping screenshots of some of the apps I used on this thing.
And thinking to more sophisticated application use cases, the most recent version of the Adobe Creative Suite that is allowed on this platform was surprisingly useful. While Photoshop clearly didn’t support the level of stuff that its descendents did, it legitimately worked well and was a polished experience. Nothing was lost but a few years on that one. (I’m sure I would feel differently if I was a video editor.)
That said, some trends that started out on the Mac post-date the PowerPC. For example, the dedicated Markdown editor, which became something of an editing phenomenon thanks to Mac programs such as Mou, iA Writer, and Bear, really didn’t pick up until around 2011 and 2012, years after one of the biggest advocates of the Mac, John Gruber, invented Markdown and released some of its earliest iterations before other developers ran with it. Markdown is supported on many early text editors with deep ties to the Mac ecosystem, such as TextMate and BBEdit, though these tools are generally meant for coding and not traditionally as useful for simply writing.
I use Markdown for everything—it’s my muscle memory at this point. I needed a good Markdown editor that I could use with keyboard shortcuts. (SimpleMarkPPC, a purpose-built markdown editor for PPC, is a good start, but no shortcuts, so it’s out.) Word or even TextEdit would not suffice unless I found a good third-party tool that allowed me to invent my own shortcuts.
After much looking around, I did find a solution that seemed to make sense, even if it was a little odd due to some early-version framing. A few years ago, The Soulmen, the developers of the popular text editor Ulysses, had a version of its popular software up on its website that supported Leopard and PowerPC. It was taken down with a redesign (it always is), but I was able to find the direct download link via a search on the Internet Archive.
Evidence that I wrote tonight’s issue on an extremely old version of Ulysses.
These days, Ulysses (a piece of software I receive access to as part of my subscription to the excellent SetApp) is a pretty solid, very flexible editor that is generally built around Markdown. The early version of the tool, however, was closer in mission to the popular screenwriting tool Scrivener, and as a result, was not actually built with Markdown in mind. In fact, it used nonstandard markup. But on the plus side, it was very easy to change it to something that resembled Markdown. So that’s what I did—I turned it into a Markdown editor.
And while it is not perfect, it’s very usable, especially in its full-screen “console” mode that is reminiscent of more modern day minimalist text editors. There are more hoops to go through, but it feels like the kind of editor I regularly use. I’m not saying that, if you buy a $10 Mac Mini, you should follow my path to writing—most people will probably be happier using something like OpenOffice or even an old version of Word.
Either way, if you’re mostly writing and doing some light photo editing, this is not a bad machine for either of those things. Mac is badmac is bad blog.
The amount of time, in minutes, it took me to move a 2.3-gigabyte file over a WiFi network from two machines—a modern laptop running MacOS and the Mac Mini G4—that were sitting directly next to one another. For sake of comparison, I sent the same file over Bluetooth on what were, again, two computers sitting directly next to one another, and it was actually much slower, only transferring at around 75k per second—meaning that it would take roughly 9 hours to send the file. (I eventually turned it off.)
Something about using this feels very fragile, and not because of the machine itself, the operating system, or even the interface. It feels fragile because of the internet.
The internet has so aggressively taken over our lives that we can’t imagine a computing experience without it. And when it’s no longer there on a platform that didn’t really work properly without it, it becomes impossible to use in many ways. One has the feeling that even older operating systems won’t feel this broken in retrospect, because their experiences are otherwise separate from the internet and work without it being at the center of the experience.
But the web browser became a vital part of our digital existence more than two decades ago, and at the time this machine was released, it was pretty much what people did with computers, for good and bad. It’s hard to relive this time properly because there’s no way to turn back the internet and no incentive for companies to do anything to maintain support for platforms that they deem not to be worth it.
Sometime last fall, the popular music service Spotify, as far as I can tell, apparently stopped working on the PowerPC versions of Mac OS X, despite working for well over a decade in that interface. I tried it myself; the servers seem to not want to talk to it anymore. This is despite the fact that, unlike most things that might get used on a PowerPC-based Mac, there is incentive to ensure that it works—because if it stops working, it may directly cost Spotify business. They don’t even have to do anything but ensure the servers keep talking with the client. Same deal, before that, with Dropbox. At some point, someone made the decision that it cost more money to simply let the servers communicate with old machines than to let those machines keep doing their jobs.
But, let’s be honest. It’s a harbinger. Eventually, the entire machine’s key functionality will fall into this decay. Some of it already did long ago. For example, the Leopard interface promotes MobileMe, a predecessor to the widely used iCloud that did not see much in the way of uptake and was taken offline nearly seven years ago. No PowerPC machine has ever officially supported iCloud; Snow Leopard, the first version of OS X that only supported Intel, was the first version to get it.
Even the web browser experience itself is being held up by volunteers who have enthusiasm for this software and this project. If, one day, they lose it, so too will the community.
Linux is an option, of course—a number of the open source operating system’s flavors, most notably Ubuntu, support the PowerPC platform, which has seen wide use in a number of other places, most famously the Xbox 360 and Nintendo Wii. Maybe I’ll do that at some point. But honestly, I was just hoping to relive my own past a little bit—in the form of a computer that was once the machine I found necessary to get through my day.
But thanks to the internet’s drumbeat, I can’t do that.
The Mac Mini G4 is not a sign of our past. It is a sign of our future—a future that will not allow the past to survive on its own terms.
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